Ancient Site (Kotada)
23° 53' 14.07'' N, 73° 12' 47.60'' E

Cultural Assemblage: Harappan

Report published: IAR 1989-90, 90-91, 91-92, 92-93, 93-94, 94-95, 95-96, 97-98, 98-99, 99-2000

The ancient ruins at Dholavira including the cemetery, half way down the slope are spread over an area of about 100 hectares half of which was appropriated by the articulately fortified settlement of the Harappans alone. Excavation has revealed cultural stages I & VII documenting the rise and fall of the first Indian civilization. It has brought to light a major as well as a model Harappan city, which is remarkable for its exquisite planning, monumental structures, aesthetic architecture and amazing water management system. It also enjoys the unique distinction of yielding an inscription made up of ten large sized signs of the Indus script.

The salient components of the full grown cityscape consisted of a Citadel middle town, and a lower town a series of reservoirs all of them set within an enormous fortification. On both sides of the city walls there was provision of a broad road running all around.

The “Citadel” has two sub-divisions, castle and bailey, located on the east and west respectively, both of the fortified. To the north of the citadel was provided a broad ground, which may have been put to multiple uses such as for community gathering on special occasions. Further north there was laid the walled middle town and to the east lay the lower town. The settlement has given impressive evidence of water management system within the fortified area including storm water drainage system and reservoirs. Some of these reservoirs were indeed large and unique, while one of them (76x26.3x7.5 m) was built of stone blocks and provided with a flight of steps on one side, the other one (88.40x1200x7.5 m) was found cut out through the rock with superb stone masonry work. Harappan artifacts and typical antiquities & potteries are found in abundance..