Excavated Site - Surkotada
23° 15' 00'' N, 69° 40' 00'' E

Brought to light by J.P.Joshi in the course of the exploration of n. Kutch between 1964 and 1968 along with 17 other Harappa sites, indicating the expansion of the Harappa culture from Sind to Gujarat by land routes. The site was excavated by them in 1970-2 (IAR 1970-1, p. 13; 1971-2, p. 13), bringing to light a threefold cultural sequence and the settlement pattern of the Harappans.

In Period I A, datable toc. 2300 B.C., the Harappans came to Surkotada and built a fortified citadel and residential annexe, made of mud brick, mud lumps and rubble, containing houses with bath-rooms and drains. A new element in the population along with the already extant Harappa is seen in c. 1900 B.C. The newcomers used a coarse red pottery. During this Period, IB, a revetment was added to the fortification of the citadel. Besides house walls the important finds are a heavy copper celt and a chisel and the usual Harappa beads, chert blades, etc.Finally, in Period I C, with the Harappa still living here,another people using the black-and-red ware and a very coarse pottery came to the site.

The available 14C dates are 2O58+95 B.C. for the earliest level of Period I A and 1970+95 B.C for the latest level thereof. Another date of 1805+90 B.P. of a mixed sample is to be discarded. The emergent picture after an evaluation of the relative and absolute chronology shows that the entire culture range at Surkotada is well within c. 2300 to 1750 B.C.